What happens if cellular changes are observed?

Weak cellular changes, so-called mild dysplasias, most frequently heal spontaneously. Therefore they are checked regularly. HPV testing may contribute to the clarification of the question if a dysplasia has the potential to develop into a carcinoma. In case of a negative HPV test result the probability for progression to cancer is very low.

In the case of more severe cellular changes, together with an incident HPV infection, a specific examination, a so-called colposcopy may be performed. During this examination a biopsy may be taken for further diagnoses. These diagnoses may allow to determine the degree of the dysplasia.

In patients with good general health who have a good condition, smaller high-grade dysplasias may be removed surgically by laser vaporization or diathermy. In case of tumors, a connotation is performed. Patients with poor general health and/or with later stage carcinomas may initially get radiation therapy; a combination with chemotherapy is also frequently used in such cases.